The goal is not to detail
and explain for a long time the different personality
disorders but trying to emphasize essential features of each
For the DSM
IV, there are ten (10) personality disorders
In the DSM
III there was another personality disorder. This has been removed
from the Personality Disorders section (presumably due to low interrater
Personality" is characterized by a pervasive distrust and suspiciousness
of others such that their motives are interpreted as malevolent. (lack
Personality" is characterized by a detachment from social relationships
and an "emotional coldness"
(alone without real
Personality" is characterized by relationship problems, by cognitive
or perceptual distortions and eccentricities of behavior (imaginary
Personality" is characterized by disregard for and violation of
the rights of others (psychopathy)
Personality" is characterized
by problems to control their emotion, impulsivity, interpersonal relationships,
Personality" is characterized by excessive emotionality and attention
seeking. ("look at me")
Personality" is characterized by grandiosity (in fantasy or
behavior), need for admiration, and lack of empathy(love
Personality" is characterized by social inhibition, feelings of
inadequacy, and hypersensitivity to negative evaluation
Personality" is characterized by excessive need to be taken care
of that leads to submissive behavior. (not really
Personality " is characterized by preoccupation with orderliness,
perfectionism, and mental and interpersonal control.
aggressive" is characterized by passive resistance to demands
This presentation of personality disorder
is personal, for official definition, please read the DSM
him the doubt is not allowed.
other" disturbs, disorganizes, manipulate.
is secret because any weakness could be used against him.
other" is a sly person, the other betray whereas there is no objective
cannot exist, that's hiding something".
tends to make paranoiac its circle.
critic reinforces him in its beliefs.
is at the head of its group, its "sect" which does not criticize him whereas
the whole world condemns him.
model is "suffering, serious, sermon and complaint".
the borderline which has up and downs (a little like the bipolar),
laugh, joy, all which allow to open with the others... is banished with
the borderline, he
has a flattering image of himself.
He believe that he is logical but in a partial logic which dissociates
facts and reality, a deviating logic.
think that he is honest, right, innocent,
noble while he is all the opposite
retorse, complicated, vicious and aggressive. he lies, he fools.
But he sees these flaws only with others.
target? The supposed "weak" because the "strong", he respects them,
admires them and is jealous of them.
would seem that the purpose of this attitude is to avoid the shame and
humiliation of an adversity inflicted during childhood.
borderline has sometimes (often?) tendency to be "paranoid" but he
does not have such a developed self-image (euphemism). These
two disorders thus seem "incompatible".
noter de plus qu'il est quasi du domaine de l'impossible qu'un paranoiaque
non traité puisse se reconnaitre comme tel du fait de sa parano,
cela remettrait en question toutes ses théories. Mais il en est
tout autrement de son entourage qui pourra le reconnaitre
is rather a solitary person, a slackness,
a cold which seems not to suffer.
the borderlines which we could describe as hyper-emotionals, the
schizoide seems not to feel emotions.
He has a distance
towards human beings, probably by lack of desire.
the borderlines, he does not have sudden mood
He seems haughty
but has a bad image of himself (lifeless, boring, looser).
borderline can sometimes make think wrongly that he has schizoid tendencies,
in particular when he is tryin to control its emotions. We will be
able to think that he is "heartless" facing a drama whereas in fact he
is tryng to control emotions to contain tears, therefore all the opposite.
two disorders thus seem "incompatible"
The DSM speaks
about uncontrollables strange beliefs
and perceptual distortions .
He is often
He has a distance
towards the human beings but this distance is the result of other's incomprehension
with its ways of thinking
He can be cyclic
in its relationships, being alone or totally opened up.
the borderline he has incomprehensible
sudden changes of mood, but rather fruits of its inner life
that external stimuli.
he does not
know too much who he is and feels like an alien in this world.
meaning to irrational (telepathy, ghosts, astrology, sixth
can be some confusion with the borderline disorder but, in offhand, the
borderline do not live in its own world, even if he has sometimes "tricks"
to reassure himself.
borderline will be able to sometimes also suffer from this disorder. (study)
Personality Disorder or psychopathy
is acting out. The act (impulsive),
often violent one, is present to solve its problems.
the borderline which is under the influence of its emotions and
suffers, the psychopath suppress and ignore its
emotions and ignore the suffering.
the borderline, he believes that he is
strong, dominating, for him others are only tools (using,
charming, destroying them according to its goodwill).
the borderline, he does not feel shame
and culpability and does not take any newlook at hilmself.
bullying during childhood could be at the origin of this pathology.
in the event of serious dissociation,
the borderline, when he is acting in a "nutcase" way, knows this, even
if he can't prevent it.
I'm not mistaken the psychopath and the borderline are the exact opposite,
the borderline is full of emotions, he feels suffering, culpability...
the psychopath is acting out, that's all.
studies seem to affirm the opposite, saying that one person can be at the
same time borderline and antisocial, that seems to me "curious" and to
be honest, totally "incompatible"
have read that there is sometimes comorbidity
with APD (antisocial). I totally disagree with that because bpd people
does not like him, feel guilty, shame, don't know who he is (self-image)...
in this way he can be also antisocial ?"
of Daniel C. Claiborn :
tend to agree with you, though Antisocial people can appear (and be) impulsive,
angry, and abusers of substances, and they can overreact to perceived rejection
Zlotnick C. - Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Brown University,
Providence, RI USA.
J Personal Disord - Antisocial personality disorder among incarcerated
controlling for BPD, recent self mutilation was not significantly related
to ASPD. Likewise, a history of childhood abuse was not significantly associated
with ASPD. (AAPEL: Whereas self-mutilation and abuses are frequent
in the borderline disorder - studies)
Hatzitaskos PK, Soldatos CR, ... Department of Psychiatry, Hospital of
Hellenic Air Force, Athens, Greece.
J Nerv Ment Dis - Discriminating borderline from antisocial personality
disorder - study 85 male young adults, 41 borderlines, 44 antisocial
Psychopathology : Borderlines = higher levels of overall psychopathology
Anxiety : Equally high anxiety in both groups
Hostility : BPD patients had more introverted hostility and APD patients
had more extroverted hostility
Cause of Hostility : With borderlines, related to overall psychopathology,
depression, and trait anxiety
antisocial no significant relationship of any type of hostility to various
dimensions of psychopathology was observed.
is characterized by problems to control their
emotions (intensity, instability). It’s like you’re in the back
seat of the car and your emotions are driving.
He has sudden
of mood (up and down) , impulsivity,
sadness, anxiety, sometimes
He has problems
black and white thinking, the way to see others in "all
good", "all bad", with a status of "victim",
unable to accept responsibility
know who he is and has an unstable self-image,
overall very negative (able to alternate with a very positive image).
He feels the
at the point to have self-destructive conduits.
The risk of
suicide gives to this disorder a real gravity.
One of the
onset factors draws its origins in the early childhood.
of the disorder
I borderline ?..
est la séduction.
peut vivre sans le regard de l'autre sur lui et ne recule devant
rien pour cela (un peu comme le narcissique mais pas pour les mêmes
le borderline est en quête d'identité, l'hystrion est en quête
la différence du borderline qui ment pour se protéger, l'histrion
a tendance à enjoliver une situation et ment
sans cesse de l'enthousiasme à la déception.
Elle a des
problèmes d'apprentissage, de concentration, d'attention.
Elle a une
estime d'elle-même et fait tout pour donner une image
borderline peut parfois avoir des traits ou souffrir de ce trouble mais
dans ce cas c'est certainement plus une façade qu'une réalité.
la différence du borderline qui bien souvent ne s'aime pas, qui
ne sait pas qui il est, le narcissique s'aime
lui-même, n'a aucune doute quant à
sa valeur hors du commun
Il a la folie
des grandeurs, il pense faire parti des "élus", ceux
à qui tout est du
Pour lui, l'autre
n'a que peu de valeur, tout juste un outils pour flatter son
Il est arrogant,
n'a pas ou peu d'empathie... La remise
en question de lui-même "c'est pas son truc"
The NPD is
best discriminated from the ASPD by their grandiosity, that is, the tendency
to exaggerate their talents, and to regard themselves as more unique and
superior. (Gunderson 2001)
borderline peut parfois par ses attitudes faire penser qu'il est narcissique
mais alors que le narcissique ne doute pas, le borderline n'est que "doutes".
deux troubles semblent donc "incompatibles".
faire du mal et se suicider quand on s'aime trop n'est pas compatible
prevalence rate of NPD is approximately 0.5-1 percent (APA)
est sa stratégie, son but étant de rester dans l'ombre
parler de timidité maladive
célibat, faible estime de soi
évitante fuit les émotions,
aussi bien le plaisir que la douleur et se fabrique une vie imaginaire
la différence du trouble borderline,
les personnes évitantes ne subissent pas
de sautes d'humeur et d'impulsivité
pourrait dire que certains borderline, à force d'échecs et
de souffrances se "réfugient" dans ce trouble pour moins souffrir
est incapable de prendre des décisions
pour elle-même et s'en remet à un tiers
borderline du fait de leur peur maladive de l'abandon, mais aussi de problèmes
de construction de leur identité durant l'enfance, développent
passivité, peur de la solitude, peur de
la rupture, anxiété
image de soi dans la constance
la différence du trouble borderline,
les personnes dépendantes ne subissent pas de sautes d'humeur et
d'impulsivité et ne subissent pas leurs émotions
nombreux borderlines sont aussi dépendants notamment du fait de
leur image d'eux-mêmes et de leur peur de l'abandon
(je ne sais
pas si les personnalités dépendantes provoquent l'abandon
de peur de se faire abandonner)
être parfait dans tous les domaines au point de perdre
de vue l'objectif initial
On peut difficillement
le qualifier de "jouisseur"
les émotions et fait tout pour les contenir
Il est totalement
("un balais dans le c..")
fait pas confiance pour déléguer
la différence d'un borderline qui ne contrôle pas grand choses
(émotions,...), l'obsessionnel fait
en sorte de garder la maîtrise de
borderline ont une tendance à l'obsession, notamment parce qu'ils
savent qu'ils peuvent se noyer dans un verre d'eau, ainsi en contrôlant
un maximum, ils espèrent se mettre à l'abri d'émotions.
semble que l'obsessionnel est trop "constant" pour pouvoir être Borderline,
c'est trop "épuisant" pour une personne borderline
aggressive Personality Disorder
to demands for adequate social and occupational performance
Cognitive Effects and typical beliefs in personality disorders
Therapy of Personality Disorders)
Paranoid Personality Disorder, typical beliefs
are potential adversaries
cannot trust other people.
people have hidden motives.
have to be on guard at all times.
isn't safe to confide in other people.
will take advantage of me if I give them the chance.
people will deliberately try to demean me.
will be in serious trouble if I let other people think they can get away
with mistreating me.
other people find out things about me, they will use them against me
Schizoid Personality Disorder, typical beliefs
need plenty of space
is less complicated without other people.
am empty inside.
is better for me to keep my distance and maintain a low profile.
am a social misfit.
is bland and unfulfilling.
Schizotypal Personality Disorder, typical beliefs
need to consider only my own views; I must not be influenced by anyone
feel like an alien in a frightening environment.
the world is dangerous, you have to watch out for yourself at all times.
are reasons for everything. Things don't happen by chance.
my inner feelings are an indication of what is going to happen.
Antisocial Personality Disorder, typical beliefs
are there to be taken
or cunning is the best way to get things done.
live in a jungle and the strong person is the one who survives.
will get at me if I don't get them first.
is not important to keep promises or honor debts.
and cheating are OK as long as you don't get caught.
have been unfairly treated and am entitled to get my fair share by whatever
means I can.
people can't take care of themselves, that's their problem
Borderline Personality Disorder, typical beliefs
people must satisfy my needs
one would love me or want to be close to me if they really got to know
can't cope on my own. I need someone to rely on.
must subjugate my wants to the desires of others or they'll abandon me
or attack me.
will hurt me, attack me, take advantage of me. I must protect myself.
isn't possible for me to control myself or discipline myself.
must control my emotions or something terrible will happen.
one is ever there to meet my needs, to be strong for me, to care for me
Histrionic Personality Disorder, typical beliefs
need to impress
order to be happy I need other people to pay attention to me.
I entertain or impress people, I am nothing.
I don't keep others engaged with me, they won't like me.
way to get what I want is to dazzle or amuse people.
is awful for people to ignore me.
should be the center of attention.
I entertain people, they will not notice my weaknesses.
will pay attention only if I act in extreme ways
Narcissistic Personality Disorder, typical beliefs
I am so superior, I am entitled to special treatment and privileges.
don't have to be bound by the rules that apply to other people.
others don't respect my status, they should be punished.
people should satisfy my needs.
people should recognize how special I am.
I am so talented, people should go out of their way to promote my career.
one's needs should interfere with my own
Avoidant Personality Disorder, typical beliefs
may get hurt
am socially inept and socially undesirable in work or social situations.
people are potentially critical, indifferent, demeaning, or rejecting.
people get close to me, they will discover the "real" me and reject me.
exposed as inferior or inadequate will be intolerable.
should avoid unpleasant situations at all costs.
feelings will escalate and get out of control.
I ignore a problem, it will go away.
Dependent Personality Disorder, typical beliefs
am needy and weak.
need somebody around available at all times to help me carry out what I
need to do or in case something bad happens.
am helpless when I am left on my own.
am basically alone--unless I can attach myself to a stronger person.
worst possible thing would be to be abandoned.
must do nothing to offend my supporter or helper.
must be subservient in order to maintain his or her good will.
need others to help me make decisions or tell me what to do
Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder, typical beliefs
are bad. I must not err
have to depend on myself to see that things get done.
tend to be too casual, often irresponsible, self-indulgent, or incompetent.
is important to do a perfect job on everything.
I don't have systems, everything will fall apart.
flaw or defect of performance may lead to a catastrophe.
need to be in complete control of my emotions.
should do things my way
that it is possible to order with our partner "Les
personnalités pathologiques" Q.Debray and D.Nollet
- Back to BPD Summary page
All the information
in this site is aimed at helping people understand a "rather particular"
and puzzling kind of disease
But more especially,
to support everyone affected by it, sick or not. In any case, it
to see a therapist who specialises in this
field they can confirm or give an alternative diagnosis
The name of what
you’ve got doesn’t matter so much, getting the right treatment for the
right patient does
last update 2020
federation - All rights reserved
Alain Tortosa, founder of the Aapel